Module 5: Pedagogy: Introduction

One of my favourite Ted Talks is Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s: The Danger of a Single Story. Every time I watch it, I get something more out of it. This time, what I noticed was her mention of Nollywood. I recently saw a special about Nollywood on EuroNews. It is amazing the number of movies put out every year in Nigeria, only Bollywood puts out more. What I love about their industry is the buy-in from the nationals in Nigeria. I find in Canada, there isn’t alway the same enthusiasm for home-grown talent. Only when someone makes it big in the U.S. or Europe do we start to appreciate them. In Nigeria, there is a hunger for someone to tell their own stories and people consume these movies with excitement. I suppose we must feel like the stories in Hollywood are close enough to our own, or we may even seen familiar landmarks since the U.S. city that is being portrayed is actually in Canada. In Nollywood movies, it must be fantastic to see your cities, your people, and stories that reflect your life. Stories don’t have to have apples, ginger beer and characters that talk about the weather to have value. Rather, stories need to reflect all cultures, experiences and perspectives. Stories can empower you to empathize with people and invite you into a world you have not seen before, and cause you to alter the way you see the world. The book: The Starless Sea, by Erin Morgenstern comes to mind. I was so transported reading this book that I constantly felt like I was in a dream. The power of literature can be so strong and yet I have not decided if I actually enjoyed reading that book, or did I like the feeling it gave me? I like to introduce or recommend literature that is unexpected, a little outside the box, and memorable. Most of all I want students to see themselves reflected in the stories I read or the books I offer them to read. Representation matters and it can be life changing.

It hurts my heart when I think of someone wanting to look a certain way that they cannot, or think they need to look like everyone else. For example, Chris Rock made a documentary called: Good Hair. He said his daughter wanted to know why she didn’t have “good hair.” How terribly sad to think she feels this way. I have very fine hair and I used to ask my mom for a thick braid, rather than the thin braid she gave me. I didn’t understand that a thick braid was impossible. It’s hard to explain to kids and see their disappointment in what they see as shortcomings. I once watched an episode of Oprah Winfrey in which some Asian guests spoke of not having an eye crease. That was something I had not considered before, but it was so important to some people, that they were having plastic surgery to add an eye crease. Some things that I take for granted, others want and vice a versa. It is a privilege to age, and understand that being content in your own skin takes work, but it is worth it.

Knowing my students have a different experience than mine, our classroom does not revolve around a single narrative. Even students who behave one way in class, may present very different in the outside world. I had a student who was a friend to all in our classroom. He would lend kids his school supplies, he would pick up things that others dropped. He was the nicest kid, and I don’t like to give labels, I have ever taught. He was thoughtful, caring, and everyone knew he had their back. When his parents came in for our conference, they could not believe their ears. Who was this kid I was talking about? They had nothing but trouble with him at home. I was confused. It was almost as if he became this person in class and could only keep it up for the day, or he was living up to the expectations others had placed on him. I also read about this phenomena in terms of race. In the book: The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas, the main character, Starr, lives in a predominantly black neighbourhood and goes to school with a predominately white population. She has to learn to navigate the two worlds. She feels she needs to always use proper grammar at her white school and yet somehow prove to her black friends that she is not uppity or different just because she attends a school with white kids. It must be a hard road to travel. How can you be your true self if you are always conscious of the way you behave, and trying to conform to what you believe others expect of you? I think it must be a confusing way, but to Starr, a necessary way to live.

In order for students to feel safe and seen, I try to ensure I have a variety of resources that reflect a variety of nationalities and ethnicities and this also goes for the classroom decor. I like to decorate the room with student created art and a variety of interesting pictures, posters and quotes from inspiring people from around the world. Since I have taught in an Indigenous community, I have a lot of posters and art from the Cree culture of Alberta. Although I like to start the year with my collection, I like to focus on the art my students make and display their work with pride in and outside of the classroom. In my experience, students enjoy seeing what they have created and receiving praise from others in the school or community for their work.

I definitely have a personal bias and it revolves around conservatives. Nothing gets my blood boiling faster than a right-wing, evangelical, “pro-life,” conservative. I have a hard time watching the news, as these traits sum up the Republican Party in the United States. We in Canada, and Ukraine, for that matter, cannot escape the news from the United States, no matter how hard you may try. In Canada, we have a lot of right-wing politicians that I can barely tolerate when I see them on the news. I am from Alberta, which is a very conservative province, and as you can imagine, I have friends and relatives who are conservatives. It depends on who I am talking to, but I sometimes I have to bite my tongue. It usually doesn’t take long for me to anger my father-in-law when discussing politics. I know this is an issue, especially since a lot of the parents of my students are conservatives, and I am careful what I say and to whom. When thinking about the video by Verna Myers, I’m not sure how to overcome this bias. One small thing I can do is to ensure I don’t lump all conservatives into the same pile. There have to be some reasonable conservatives that are actually not that far away from my beliefs, politically. I am so tired of hearing about people who claim to be pro-life, but in actuality are pro-birth, and then they don’t care what happens to the child after they are born. If people really were pro-life, then they would value sex education classes, the promotion of a variety of birth control methods, and organizations such as Action Canada, that can help people make the best decisions for themselves in terms of sexuality and decisions regarding pregnancy. I feel this strong pro-life stance has more to do with controlling women’s bodies than it does the right to live.

I understand that we don’t have to agree with everyone to get along, but I have been pushed to my limits in my role in Ukraine. Prior to COVID, there was a very active social scene among the diplomatic community. I have spoken with openly racist people, homophobic people, Donald Trump supporters and had to grit my teeth and say nothing for the most part, as not to create tension as a representative of Canada. I was invited to a dinner at the British Ambassador’s residence and my jaw nearly dropped when I saw Bill Taylor, the former United States Ambassador to Ukraine. He had just testified in the first impeachment hearings and he was dominating the news along with Dr. Fiona Hill. I approached him to tell him how surreal it was to see him in person, as I had watched him on the news in the impeachment trial. He told me it was surreal being him right now. He said you cannot prepare yourself for he went through. I realized at that moment that he constantly has to put himself in a position of neutrality and embody the word “diplomatic.” I admire this man for his ability to remain neutral and yet honest in times of crisis. I would like to get there myself. According to Verna Myers, I have to acknowledge my bias. I definitely can acknowledge my bias. This is not a problem. The problem is trying to disassociate conservative from bad. I need to seek out conservatives that do the right thing. I saw a story on the news about Republican Adam Kinzinger who went against his party to condemn Trump. Unfortunately for him, his family has now shunned him for what he did. This is an except from the letter members of his family wrote to him: “Oh my, what a disappointment you are to us and to God!” they wrote. “You have embarrassed the Kinzinger family name!”

I have to admire his courage. He has his values, and he made the decision to vote to impeach Trump knowing what the possible implications from his family would be. So here is step two, Adam Kinzinger is a conservative and he is not all bad. He has some morals that I admire. If I can research some more conservatives and find other people that have made positive contributions to society, perhaps I can, as Myers suggests, “Stare at awesome conservative people.” While she suggested “staring at awesome black people,” I need to extrapolate her advice for conservatives. I need to spend some time finding some disconfirming data that will prove that my stereotypes are wrong. I think I also need to look for Canadian conservatives, or places other than the U.S., because there doesn’t seem to be a bottom for the level of depravity many of the republicans in the U.S. will sink.

So to recap, I have acknowledged my bias, I have decided to stop labelling all conservatives with the same brush and I am going to seek out examples, like Adam Kinzinger, to disassociate conservatives with thoughts like backward, bad, or lacking morals. The only part I have a problem with, is near the end of the video Myers asks us to call out bigotry or racism when it happens. This may conflict with me embracing conservatives. One of my American friends posted a negative post about Joe Biden on the day of the Capitol Hill Insurrection. I couldn’t believe what I saw and I asked her why she was condemning Biden instead of Trump. She blocked me. It’s fine, and I guess this is just going to be how it goes moving forward. Not all encounters are going to be easy or without consequences, but just like anything, it’s a process, and I have to stick up for what I believe is right. I now have the tools and the impetus to make a change in my thinking.

Module 5: Part 1: Teaching in Linguistically Diverse Learning Environments

I don’t feel prepared for a linguistically diverse learning environment. I currently teach English and I have made enough mistakes with my Ukrainian students and other Ukrainians I know. I have often made the mistake of thinking my student was stronger or weaker in English than they are, based on their conversational skills. When I first met my Grade 11 student, she spoke in a halting, heavily accented way. When I started working with her to determine a plan, I found there was almost nothing I could teach her grammatically. She was nearly perfect. She rarely if ever made any mistakes. I had seriously misjudged her, and had rethink our program. We then focused on role-plays, read aloud exercises, and I tried flipping the class to give her more time to work on the articles and tape herself. This way, she could practice and then tape herself when she was ready. It was much more successful than me interrupting her and her flow too often. I noticed once I flipped the class that her confidence grew and she became more willing to speak and take risks in her speech.

I have also misjudged students who have come to me with strong conversational skills and realized that they are not as strong as they seem. It can be hard to get past that. A student can come across as confident, so capable sounding, until you realize they have gapping holes in their knowledge and vocabulary. I still make that mistake with one of the guards at our building. He likes to practice his English skills, so I talk to him whenever I see him. He approaches me and asks me about my son, the weather, or Canada, and the next thing he is asking me to repeat myself or I can tell he has not understood me. I often get carried away and assume he knows more than he does.

Oddly enough, when I am out with my spouses group, from different embassies (pre-COVID), who for the most part speak Russian, I find myself speaking very slowly, deliberately and really considering my words carefully. They don’t understand why I study Ukrainian as Russian is used more widely. Our government feels Ukrainian should be the language we learn, but I don’t tell them that. After I go home, I am tired and have a hard time speaking at a normal rate and using my regular vocabulary. I remember the same sensation when I was teaching in Prague. I felt like I lost vocabulary, while my students gained it. I had trouble conjuring up the right word when I needed it and my parents started questioning my writing skills on post cards.

Speaking Ukrainian vs. Speaking Russian

I can’t even imagine how difficult it would be to have students from a variety of languages and then add in personality differences, and deference towards teachers, and it can be difficult to navigate. A student from Sweden arrived in my son’s Grade 4 class without a word of English. Luckily there was a Swede in the class to help her. I had not considered this to be possible, but then where would I expect her go? It definitely is possible, and the same thing can and does happen with students arriving in Canada.

I had a Grade 2 student who was born in the Philippines. In Grade One she has been working on an on-line English program. When I had a look at it and thought about the time it took her to complete, which would have her away from the rest of class, and took into account that she did not like it, it was obvious, we had to come up with other solutions. I met with her parents, and we decided that instead of sending her to French class, that I would work with her one-on-one, and we found a more kid-friendly computer program to supplement our lessons. Later in the year, I met with the inclusive learning teacher and she was able to add my student to her roster and came in assist her during some of our Language Arts classes. This made a big difference as my student was not one to ask for help, but when sitting one-on-one with a teacher, felt comfortable reaching out with any questions. This type of support will not always be available, so I feel conferencing with students is a great way to check in, find out about gaps in knowledge or ways in which I can better support them. This can be in person, through exit notes or by e-mail.

Module 5: Part 2: Assessment in International Teaching

These are the cultural expectations I have for my classroom:

I expect all students to be able to work together in groups, as well as times when I will expect students to work alone, depending on the topic or the situation. I sometimes let my students choose partners, and other times I make the groups. I like offering students a choice of partner, but I don’t like to see students left out, so I avoid that situation if possible. I know students gain so much from working together, regardless of the end result. Whether their experience was positive or negative, learning about cooperation, collaboration. and how to resolve conflict is vital as life skills. There are some assignments where students are required to reflect, and I think this type of assignment calls for an individual approach. When I have asked students to reflect as a group, I feel like one person dominates the reflection, and I don’t necessarily get a true reflection from everyone in the group. They all end up saying the same thing. While this may be the case, I like each member of the group to personally reflect, as I find the end result is personal and more authentic than when given as a group project.

As far as cheating goes, I don’t think helping a friend is cheating. There may be times when students are expected to work alone on a test, for example, and I would make sure students understand the expectation is this work is meant to be their own and that they need to keep their answers to themselves. I don’t think students will be confused regardless of their cultural background when expectations are clearly laid out. I’m not exactly sure what is meant by “not always critical you produce your best work.” Sometimes I will ask my students when writing, to just get all their thoughts down, and not to worry about corrections, spelling, or being perfect, I just want them to write. I suppose this can be difficult, especially for people who are used to always presenting their best work. When it is time to hand something in, I expect students have proof read their work, had me or a peer review it and pay attention to detail. I don’t want students to get caught up with “perfect” while creating, but through my messaging, through my rubrics and exemplars (when appropriate) I want students to do their best when presenting their finished product.

I used to be someone who was late for everything. This caused me a lot of problems with my friends and with my boss. I was known for being late. Now, I don’t think I can be late for anything. I am so antsy when I think I should leave, that I tend to leave early. I understand if a student is late from time to time, but I think I would bother me if a student was consistently late. My last teaching assignmen was Grade 1/2, so my students were not late, unless there was a problem with the busses. I don’t think it shows a lack of respect, as some people believe, as I used to be a late person and I was never late on purpose or out of disrespect. I just couldn’t get my act together and time always got away from me. I didn’t give myself a buffer period, and my 15 minutes I thought I had turned into 5, when I forgot something, for example. If a student was showing up late, I would ask them to speak to me after class to see if we could come up with some strategies to help them show up on time.

I love to have discussions with my students and hearing about their lives. I do understand that not everyone enjoys sharing or due to cultural expectations, they find this strange. I am certainly flexible with students who would rather share their thoughts in writing, and I do not expect all students to participate in classroom discussions. I do expect that all students participate in oral presentations in person or in virtual form. If my students are going to be expected to speak in front of the class, then all students need to participate as we build up a community of trust and mutual respect and empathy.

I do not expect eye contact from my students. I think this is something that is hard to change. I have had some students who don’t look at me when I’m taking and it has bothered me. I have asked them to tell me what I just said and they know exactly. Some kids don’t need to make eye contact or look at a person to be engaged in what is going on. That is a difficult one for me, as I used to expect my student to look at whoever was talking. I have seen some students who look down when someone is talking, as a way of focusing and blocking out the visual distractions. I have to lip read, even though my hearing is fine, so I find myself always looking directly at the person, which I suppose can be unnerving. I think this is another thing I can explain to my students in terms of why I need to look at them when they talking. Communicating with people wearing masks has been especially tricky for me.

I do like to use proximately, especially when I need to get the attention of a student without disrupting the lesson. I’m not sure how students feel about this, and it is not something I had thought about, but it is something to keep an eye on. I do not touch my students, unless they need help with a zipper, or band-aid, but I have not experienced a child that has seemed uncomfortable with close proximately. I like a lot of personal space and most Ukrainians don’t give personal space. I still jump when someone comes up right next to me while I’m waiting for the walk sign to turn green. After four years, I still don’t understand why they think they need to be right next to me in an empty street. I did not realize how much I value personal space until I arrive here.

Gender is one area where I have strong feelings. I can’t watch the Always commercials about “running like a girl” without crying. I can’t stand to think of someone believing they are any less valuable due to their sex. I think when I start teaching internationally I will first have to find out about all of the cultural norms before I start my job. Ukraine is a strange mix of traditional roles for men and women, and yet women can hold powerful positions within government, and have equal rights in their constitution. I read, however, there are still jobs women can’t do, like working with hazardous materials, for example. Gender is one area where I would have to walk a fine line. I do not want to ask a boy student to do something that would embarrass him, yet, I do not want the girls in my class to feel like they have to be responsible for undesirable chores.

I do not mind allowing students who need to move to do so. I know some students just don’t do well sitting and they need to move. I usually speak to them when I start to notice a pattern and let them know that for the most part, I don’t mind them walking around, as long as they realize other students may be bothered by their movements and ask them to move around the back of the room, or stand and stretch without bothering others.

When thinking about perpetual style and cognitive style, I love to have students work collaboratively on tasks. I am endlessly fascinated with the approach some students take to tackling problems and the ways they come to see a different approach. Some students like to have a master plan and divide the tasks and other students want to start small and work towards a larger goal. I think we have a lot to learn from each other in terms of our approach to solving problems. I marvel at the ways in which my students all have unique gifts and what they bring to the classroom. I had a Grade 1 students who could make her own grilled cheese sandwich. I had parents who would not let me near the stove until I was around 12. I had another student who was a master at reflection in Grade Two. She would relate every challenge she had to the rodeo and say things like: “I felt like giving up on this assignment, but then I thought about the courage it takes for a cowboy to ride a bull and I knew I could do it. I think I have become stronger by completing this assignment.” I can’t imagine myself saying this in Grade Two. I think in these cases, students need to play to their strengths, but then they also they need to be challenged to see things done in a new way, or try new methods of solving problems.

The reason I have these expectations is I have taught for a number of years and my thinking has evolved. I used to think having a quiet, orderly class, with quiet kids was the goal. Now I see that I was conforming to the expectations of more traditional teachers or administration and not putting learning first. Over the years I have become more conscious about my treatment of students regarding gender. I don’t remember who wrote it but I love the phrase, “Pay attention to gender when it matters, and ignore it when it doesn’t.” We do not want to deny our students the opportunity to be themselves, but I don’t like to divide the class by boys and girls or use the term “boys and girls, to address my students. I am also conscious of using the term “guys,” instead of “everyone,” or “students,” etc. I used to be picky about students sitting in their desks, as I would feel as if I was losing control. Now, I understand that I need to offer the best experience to everyone, and that might include allowing them to fidget or walk around to feel comfortable. I think a lot of my expectations were conscious choices when I first started, but now I have fine tuned my belief system and I am much more open to examining my behaviour and my expectations. I would be open to renegotiating my expectations in all areas except for lateness and allowing students to put down others in regards to gender or refusing to work with someone. If a student is late, I think the rest of the class may feel like why did they have to get ready and make it on time and this student does not. It can create some resentment among students. When I taught in an Indigenous community, we had a program to stop students being late, which was ridiculous. I can’t remember it exactly, but when the bell rang, students had three minutes to get to class. After that, teachers would lock and shut their doors and other teachers would roam the halls collecting the late students and bring them to the common area. Everyone was given a late slip and they had to write an idea of how not to be late and after three lates a parent was called, and then the punishments got worse until there was a suspension. I don’t know what the goal was, since students would spend a lot of time being rounded up and filling out forms. It the goal was to ensure they were getting the benefit of the full class, this was contrary to the outcome.

I think one strategy for me to clarify my cultural expectations is to be very open and transparent with my students. I think filling out an inventory can go a long way, such as “what name do you want me to use?” “Do you learn better when there are visuals, graphics, videos, etc?” I think this inventory can be expanded to questions such as: “Do you prefer written responses to class discussions?” “Do you prefer to work alone or with a group?” Once I have established student preferences I can express my preferences by letting students know that regardless of whether you like someone, you need to respect everyone in our classroom. I will not tolerate students being disrespectful to one another or me. This means, unkind words, put downs, laughing at another student’s thoughts or answer, or name calling. For me, I think the best way to present my expectations is through a video I make of appropriate and inappropriate behaviours in my classroom. I can list the ways I expect students to behave and these can be monitored and adjusted as problems or conflicts arise. For example if I insist on students not being late and this is causing them to skip school, I am going to modify my expectations. I would rather a student is late than absent. I can then ask students to write a reflection on my video and ask probing questions like is there anything you see as an obstacle to your learning? I will set high expectations for all my students and treat them with the respect I expect to receive. I will be receptive to suggestions and will commit to incorporating new learning.

Teaching Practices Consequences and Assessment Practices

I believe being on time is important
This may be out of the student’s control or not valued by the student. This can lead to conflict between the student and the teacher and it can lead to resentment from other students in regards to fairness if it is not addressed. Expectations regarding time will have to be firmly established and re-evaluated for fairness or if it results in students staying home, rather than being late. I don’t see this affecting the assessment of students, unless they don’t come to class. I would set clear expectations and work with the student to come up with ways to get to class on time. I would not let the situation linger. It has to be dealt with immediately.
I believe in Gender inclusivenessStudents may be conditioned that there are traditional gender roles in their culture and are not used to being a girl who takes on a boy’s parts in a play for example. Students may not want to cook or clean in class as this may be seen as women’s work in their culture. The expectations will be made clear that everyone is responsible for the classroom and they will all be required to clean, to make it a nice environment to work and play. If there is an opportunity to cook, all students will be expected to participate and again, the expectations are if we are all going to share in this meal or celebration, everyone must participate. I will use cooperation and collaboration to back up my expectations. I will not, however, single out one student to clean, for example, as I don’t want to embarrass a student who does not believe this chore to be something he would normally preform. I want my student to think of our classroom as a community with community expectations that may or may not be different from their own. If a child refuses to do something they don’t feel comfortable doing like cooking for example, when the expectations have been made clear, then I would assess the student lower. Maybe cooking is not a “male” role, but in our curriculum, cooking is part of the expectations. I would not surprise my students by expecting this, but prepare them for this activity in advance.
I like to use proximity to focus attention and I do like to work with my students one-on-oneSome students may feel uncomfortable with me moving towards them or sitting next to them during a project. I am going to have to ask students about proximity in their student inventory and then observe students reactions to having me approach their space. I like a lot of personal space, so I don’t think this will be an issue. This would not have any bearing on assessment.
I use eye-contact and watch other people’s mouths for clarification when communicatingStudents may feel uncomfortable with me making direct eye contact and watching their mouths. Since this is not something I believe I can fix, I will explain that I rely on lip reading to communicate. I will make eye contact with my students, but I will not expect the same from them. This would not have any bearing on assessment.
Polychronic and Monocronic OrientationStudents will be permitted choice in how they go about approaching a problem or task. This could be a bit of an issue when working with a group or a partner who does not go about solving problems that way. I think all students can benefit from this exposure to the unique ways other people work. Although this could produce some conflict, it is important to allow students the opportunity to negotiate methods of tackling a problem and reflecting on their experiences trying something new. During group work, I will take into account the reflections of the students as well as the group and self-assessments of each student. I hope that a mismatch of orientations will not influence my assessments of students, but I feel the gains outweigh the risks, in terms of pushing students out of their comfort zones. Students may each present a different plan and find a way to collaborate to put it all together.

Module 5: Part 3: Bringing it all together: Culture, Curriculum and Pedagogy

When thinking about the Eight Ground Rules for Difficult Dialogues, I have had some difficult conversations with my students and I really had to think about how to respond. My students from an Indigenous community were talking to me about the racism they experience all the time. I was shocked. A student was telling me that “A white boy just walked up and kicked him.” I was horrified. It’s not like I am oblivious to racism, but I couldn’t believe it was that blatant. Then other kids started telling their stories and more examples of hateful experiences came pouring out of them. I was ill prepared, and I didn’t know what to say. I told them, I was sorry they had to go through that, and they definitely don’t deserve to be treated that way. I wanted to say something profound or something that could soften the blow, but in the end what I realized is that my students just wanted to be heard. I was there to listen, to show empathy, but it was not something I could fix or change. When teaching on the reserve I often questioned if my students should be segregated in their own school on their own reserve. I came to the conclusion that yes, they had a lot of positive experiences there, that they would not find anywhere else. Some of their teachers and support staff were Cree, they could hold ceremonies and participate in smudging, and they were not judged, for the most part, for being Indigenous. Some students with light skin, were sometimes bullied, and that was hard to change, but school for the most part was a safe place. Racism can be so difficult to relate to. My students were told by an elder: “Even though your teacher is white, you still need to listen to her.” I could see my students wanting to crawl out of their skin when she said this. When we got back to our classroom, my student said they felt badly for me. I wasn’t offended. In fact, I understand her thinking. It can be hard to trust people who have hurt you in the past. Most of the Elders are Residential School survivors. These experiences in the Residential Schools have devastated communities and families. The best thing I could do was to expose my students a nuanced view of “whiteness.” I hope the take away for them was not all white people are racist, and white people can be allies in helping to fight racism.

Active Listening Checklist

One activity that I think would work really well is to review the checklist and talk about each point in depth to find out what the students think each question means. Once the checklist is clear, ask the students to fill out the checklist and submit it to the teacher. Then, divide the class into partners and ask students to tell one another a story. After the sharing has taken place. Ask the partners to reiterate what the story was about and ask each partner to give the other partner a grade on their listening skills. Did they ask questions? Did they provide non-verbal listening cues or noises to show they are following? Did they interrupt? Did they judge your feeling? Teachers could make this as narrow or as broad as they would like. Students could be asked to focus on one skill, some skills, or all of them at once. Then students could be asked to self-reflect on their listening skills. Was it hard not to interrupt? Were you able to follow the story and stay focused, or did your mind drift?

In another activity, I could show a video about the importance of homework, for example, or I could talk about homework to my students. I could then ask half the class to make a case for why homework is important and ask the other half to take the opposite side. We could engage in a conversation and see if students are able to hear each other out, or if they interrupt, if they feel angry, do they show their distaste by their body language? We could review the conversation after the lesson and ask students to fill out the checklist and see if their bias was interfering with their ability to listen.


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